Mutation is a change in the genetic material that controls heredity. In other words, it is a failure of DNA repair. This can disrupt human body’s development and its major functions. Although the change can be a tiny, it is crucially harmful or helpful depending on the environment you live in.
Unfortunately, majority of the mutations are not helpful. Depending on situations, it can result in one or two nucleotide being added or left out when DNA is replicated during the cell division. There are four kinds of mutations: Missense Nonsense, Silent, and Splice-site mutations. These mutations can result in sickle-cell disease, cystic fibrosis, down syndrome or Huntington’s disease. Among these consequences, I would like to talk more about genetic mutation called, down syndrome.
Down syndrome is a condition when extra chromosome, 47 instead of 46, are developed. Although some might think that extra chromosome might be helpful, but it is harmful physically and mentally. This mutation occurs 1 in every 800 babies. More miserable fact is that it can’t be prevented, but it can be detected before a child is born. A women age 35 or more have higher risk of having a child with this condition.